This exam will address the learning from MODULE 4 on DIFFERENTIATION, as well as the following learning from previous modules (We are practicing spaced practice!): 1. After interacting with all of the materials from module 2, please give a brief definition of each of these: Positive reinforcer; Negative reinforcer; Presentation punishment (aka, positive punishment); Removal punishment (aka, negative punishment). 2. Compare and contrast the similarities and difference between “spaced practice” and “interleaved practice.” 3. From the readings and videos, describe 3 strategies that would enhance or improve students’ memory. 4. Which of these statements would be indicative of developing a growth mindset according to Dr. Carol Dweck? You worked really hard on that. You are so smart! You are the best in the class at math. You really know all there is to know about frogs. 5. According to the authors of Make It Stick, is the following statement true or false: If we can make learning easier and faster, the learning will be better. 6. According to the authors of Make It Stick, is this statement TRUE or FALSE? A single test in the middle of a course can produce a large improvement in final exam scores, and gains in learning continue to increase as the number of tests increases. 7. Critical and creative thinking can be enhanced by A) Rewards B) Praise C) Extrinsic motivation D) Intrinsic motivation 8. External rewards are very effective in enhancing A) Critical thought B) Mundane and low-level tasks C) Mastery of complex concepts D) Creative thinking 9. Attribution theory explains why A) We should focus on each child’s attributes to make them feel special. B) Some people excuse their own failures based on attributes. C) Attributes cannot be changed within an individual. D ) Lesson plans should address all attributes. 10. A student’s inability to pay attention because of hunger can best be explained by A) Goal Theory B) Behavioral Theory C) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs D) Attribution Theory 11. Vygotsky’s Theory of Proximal Development advocated for which of the following? Check ALL that apply. A) Students of a given age (i.e. age 10) fall into a specific zone of proximal development. B) Students can grow from where they are to the next level with scaffolding. C) Teachers are far better than peers in providing scaffolding. D) In any given classroom, all students’ zones of proximal development will be alike. 12. TRUE OR FALSE: Daniel Pink would say that Type I’s are predominantly born that way and stay that way. 13. TRUE OR FALSE: Daniel Pink suggests that we not ask students to evaluate themselves. It only encourages lying and cheating. 14. TRUE OR FALSE: Daniel Pink would advise parents to require chores if they are going to give an allowance. Children should learn to earn what they get. 15. TRUE OR FALSE: An example of positive punishment would be when a primary teacher gives a student a sad face sticker, or a high school teacher writes the student’s name on the board. 16. What is the difference between formative and summative assessments? What is the difference between grading and assessment? 17. What are the three parts/questions to descriptive feedback for formative assessment? 18. Be able to define these terms: . NORM-REFERENCED ASSESSMENTS . CRITERION-REFERENCED (or STANDARDS-BASED) ASSESSMENTS . RELIABILITY . VALIDITY 19. What are the differences among these four learning theories: Behaviorism, Cognitive Theory, Constructivism and Social Learning Theory (Vygotsky)?