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Common Triggers for Psoriasis and Clinical Types
Psoriasis, a chronic skin condition marked by inflammation, can be sparked by genetic, environmental, and immune factors. Genetic predisposition heightens the risk, especially for those with a family history. Environmental triggers like infections, stress, and certain medications can also influence psoriasis onset or exacerbation. An abnormal immune response, involving T cells and cytokines, plays a central role in its development (Blake et al., 2020). Psoriasis exhibits various clinical types, with plaque psoriasis being the most common. It is identified by raised, red patches with silvery scales, often found on elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back. Other types include guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic psoriasis, each with distinct features. Nail psoriasis can also occur, causing changes in nail appearance. In K.B.’s case, her initial limited plaque-type psoriasis has flared up more extensively, possibly influenced by triggers like stress or changes in the immune response. Recognizing these triggers is vital for tailoring effective treatment plans.
Treatment Options for Psoriasis
To address K.B.’s widespread psoriasis flare-up, a combination of treatments is considered. While high-potency corticosteroids worked for localized lesions in the past, the current extensive outbreak may benefit from broader approaches. Additionally, phototherapy, specifically narrowband UVB, exposes the skin to controlled UVB light, aiding moderate to severe psoriasis. Similarly, systemic medications like methotrexate or cyclosporine may be explored for more severe cases, balancing potential side effects (Blake et al., 2020). On the other hand, Biologics, such as adalimumab or secukinumab, can also offer targeted therapy with fewer systemic effects. Furthermore, incorporating non-pharmacological options is vital, emphasizing lifestyle changes like stress reduction, balanced diets, and regular exercise. Skincare practices and moisturization are also crucial for symptom management. Given the psoriasis-MetS link, promoting heart-healthy habits, including weight management, exercise, and a balanced diet, is essential for K.B.’s overall well-being.
Medication Review and Reconciliation
Reviewing K.B.’s medications is crucial as it offers insights into her psoriasis management and overall health. Psoriasis, being an inflammatory condition, requires varied treatments, including topicals, systemic therapies, and possibly biologics. This review helps assess treatment effectiveness, identify side effects, and consider adjustments. Given psoriasis’ link to cardiovascular issues, understanding her medications is vital for evaluating cardiovascular risk factors (Fernández‐Armenteros et al., 2019). Some treatments, like certain biologics, can influence heart health. Recognizing potential drug interactions or contraindications is also crucial, especially if new treatments are being considered. This comprehensive approach ensures K.B.’s well-being, addressing both psoriasis and its potential impact on overall health.
Other Manifestations of Psoriasis
Apart from the visible plaques, individuals with psoriasis may face additional challenges. Psoriatic arthritis often accompanies the condition, causing joint inflammation, pain, and swelling. Another manifestation is psoriatic nail dystrophy, leading to nail changes like pitting and discoloration. Additionally, psoriasis may extend beyond the skin, linking to systemic issues such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (Fernández‐Armenteros et al., 2019). The persistent inflammation in psoriasis contributes to these health complications, emphasizing the importance of monitoring and addressing systemic aspects. Healthcare providers should conduct regular dermatological and systemic assessments to ensure a comprehensive approach to managing psoriasis and its potential impact on overall health and well-being. For patients like K.B. experiencing a flare-up, addressing both visible symptoms and potential systemic implications is crucial.